Cannabinoids, Cannabis Cancer

Other names: Hemp, Marijuana

There is a grown body of research showing that Cannabinoids posses anticancer activity and may retard cancer growth, inhibit angiogenesis and the metastatic spreading of cancer cells. The interest in cannabiniod for cancer treatment started in 1974 by a research team at the Medical College of Virginia that discovered that cannabis inhibited malignant tumor cell growth in culture and in mice. According to the study’s results marijuana’s primary cannabinoid THC, “slowed the growth of lung cancers, breast cancers and a virus-induced leukemia in laboratory mice, and prolonged their lives by as much as 36 percent.”

A study published in a 1975 edition of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, which showed that THC slowed the growth of lung cancer, breast cancer and virus-induced leukemia in rats.

Titled Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids, this study was funded by the US National Institute of Health, and performed by researchers at the Medical College of Virginia. Despite the promising results, no further research was made, and the study has essentially disappeared from the scientific literature.

In 1985, the Food and Drug Administration approved the marketing of dronabinol, trade name Marinol. This product is THC, synthesized commercially rather than extracted from marijuana. It is approved for use in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, and for the treatment of loss of appetite associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. It is classified as Schedule II (of medical benefit, but with high potential for abuse). It remains the only cannabinoid approved for medical treatment.

A 1994 study, which documented that THC may protect against malignant cancers, and which was buried by the US government. The $2 million study, funded by the US Department of Health and Human Services, sought to show that large doses of THC produced cancer in rats. Instead, researchers found that massive doses of THC had a positive effect, actually slowing the growth of stomach cancers. The rats given THC lived longer than their non-exposed counterparts.

The study was unpublished and the results hidden for almost three years, until it was finally leaked to the media in 1997. (CC#17, THC for tumors).

A study published in the July 1998 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that anandamide inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. Anandamide is the naturally occurring body chemical which is mimicked by cannabinoids.

An article in the October 2003 issue of the medical journal Nature Reviews, explains in detail current research on how cannabinoids can be used to treat cancer and tumors. The article, titled Cannabinoids: potential anti-cancer agents, outlines the human body’s system of cannabinoid receptors, and explains how cannabinoids work to decrease nausea, increase appetite and inhibit pain.

However, most interesting is the section titled Antitumour effects of cannabinoids, where author Manuel Guzman shows that cannabinoids destroy many forms of tumors and cancer cells.

Further, Guzman claims that “cannabinoids are selective antitumor compounds, as they can kill tumor cells without affecting their non-transformed counterparts.” In fact, instead of harming normal cells, cannabinoids “might even protect them from cell death.”

Citing over 100 references of research from scientific and medicinal journals, this article compiles all major studies into how cannabinoids affect cancerous tumors and cancer patients.

In 2000, Manuel Guzman led a study which showed that application of THC destroyed otherwise incurable brain cancer tumors in rats (CC#25, THC destroys brain cancers). Sadly their research could not continue due to a lack of funding (CC#29, No funding for THC tumor research).

Some notable studies into the anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids include:

Cannabinoids block: A study published in the July 2002 edition of the medical journal Blood, which found that THC and some other cannabinoids produced “programmed cell death” in different varieties of human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, thereby destroying the cancerous cells but leaving other cells unharmed.

In 2003, research into the value of marijuana or its active components for use in medicine is severely limited due to federal laws that restrict its availability. Marijuana is classified as a Schedule I drug by the Drug Enforcement Administration, meaning that it has no medical use and a high potential for abuse. However, many would dispute this classification, since it has proven benefits in palliative care (treatment of symptoms of medical conditions) and holds promise of other benefits as well. This article focuses on the potential of the cannabinoids as anticancer drugs.

What are cannabinoids and how do they function?
Marijuana is a hemp plant with the scientific name Cannabis sativa. When chemists isolated the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana they named it tetrahydrocannibinol, abbreviated as THC. They subsequently found a related active compound called cannabidiol. Compounds that are structurally similar to these compounds, or have a similar effect in the body are called cannabinoids. Interestingly, cannabinoids are found naturally in the body as well, known as endocannabinoids. Examples are arandamide and arachidonolyglycerol. Researchers have found that endocannabinoids have important roles in pain, in memory, in nerve degeneration, and in inflammation.

In order carry out their effects in the body, the cannabinoids must first bind to specific receptors in the body. Receptors are protein molecules found on the cell membranes. There are two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are associated with the nervous system and are found in abundance in the brain as well as other parts of the body. The psychoactive effects of cannabinoids are dependent on binding to the CB1 receptor. CB2 receptors are associated with cells and tissues related to the immune system, whose function is still not well understood. The binding of cannabinoid to its receptor results in the transmission of signals that effect changes in physiological functions.

Dec. 27, 2007: Cannabinoids may suppress tumor invasion in highly invasive cancers, according to a study published online December 25 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Cannabinoids, the active components in marijuana, are used to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as pain, weight loss, and vomiting, but there is increasing evidence that they may also inhibit tumor cell growth. However, the cellular mechanisms behind this are unknown.

Robert Ramer, Ph.D., and Burkhard Hinz, Ph.D., of the University of Rostock in Germany investigated whether and by what mechanism cannabinoids inhibit tumor cell invasion.

Cannabinoids did suppress tumor cell invasion and stimulated the expression of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of a group of enzymes that are involved in tumor cell invasion.

“To our knowledge, this is the first report of TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive effects of cannabinoids. This signaling pathway may play an important role in the antimetastatic action of cannabinoids, whose potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of highly invasive cancers should be addressed in clinical trials,” the authors write.

Cannabinoids Palliative Effects

Advocates of the use of medical marijuana have long sought its use to alleviate the suffering of patients with severely debilitating and terminal diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Although many patients would prefer to smoke marijuana in order to achieve a more rapid response, physicians are not inclined to approve of this method due to its history of abuse and the known dangers of smoking. Instead, the physician administers the pure cannabinoids.

  • Pain inhibition: Cancer pain originates from inflammation, mechanical pressure from growing tumors, and nerve damage. Cannabinoids reduce pain by inhibiting neurotransmission, and may act locally by inhibiting the release of mediators of pain and inflammation.
  • Inhibition of nausea and vomiting: These symptoms regularly accompany the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. Cannabinoids apparently act on the CB1 receptors located in the stomach, duodenum, and colon to reduce motility (movement) due to the release of acetylcholine. They may also act on the portion of the brainstem that controls the vomiting reflex. Although cannabinoids are quite effective for this purpose, modern drugs have been developed that are more effective than previously.
  • Appetite stimulation: More than half of the patients with advanced cancer experience lack of appetite and weight loss. Cannabinoids apparently act upon the CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus of the brain that controls food intake, and may act on receptors in nerve terminals and fat cells.
  • Psychological effects: Marijuana is taken for its psychological effects, and cannabinoids properly administered may aid in reduction of anxiety and depression and improved sleep for cancer patients. However, information about these effects is still largely anecdotal.
  • Highly nutritious for the body.
    Hemp seeds are rich in minerals and vitamins. They are the only edible seeds that contain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an essential fatty acid vital for human health. The fatty acid ratio present in hemp seeds is perfect for our bodies.
  • Benefits for vegans.
    Hemp contains very high quantity of proteins that are required essentially by vegans as they do not consume any animal products and fulfill their protein requirement from plants only. Secondly these proteins are easily digested by their system.
  • Benefits to the heart.
    High blood pressure indicates that the flow of blood in the blood vessels is sluggish demanding the heart to work more. Hemp products reduce the inflammation in the circulatory system and improve circulation. This smoothen the blood flow and relieves the heart.
  • Improves digestion
    The fiber content present in hemp improves the movement of bowels and treats problems like constipation.
  • Helps in weight loss.
    Intake of hemp fills the stomach and reduces crave for foods. Thus regular intake of hemp products help in weight loss.
  • Benefits to diabetics.
    Intake of hemp maintains the levels of blood sugar that is requisite for the healthy living of diabetics.
  • Used for the production of paper and related products.
    The hemp plant possesses enormous potential for the production of paper and related products like newsprint, stationary, computer paper, cardboard, toilet paper, envelopes, even tampons. According to U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, just one acre of hemp is capable of producing four times more paper as compared to paper produced by cutting down one acre of trees. So why not increase plantation rather cutting down trees.
  • Beneficial for the soil.
    Planting hemp in polluted soil lifts heavy metals from such soil. It taps into sub-soil and adds nutrients to it. Thus the growth of hemp plant is beneficial for the soil.
  • Benefits to the environment.
    Hemp is capable of replacing all major non-renewable resources. Hemp fiber is more versatile and stronger than any other fiber derived from plants such as cotton and wood. Production of paper demands the cutting of trees all over the world. Hemp is a superior resource for manufacturing paper. Hemp paper is much stronger and durable as compared to paper produced from trees.
  • Benefits for the skin
    Skin that contains lower amount of Omega 6 fatty acids and GLA is capable of absorbing natural moisture, and causes dryness. Dry skin causes many problems, like psoriasis, eczema, scaling, cracking, and loss of elasticity. Skin care products that contain Omega 6 fatty acids can help provide relieve these problems. Regular use of hemp oil reduces skin problems and helps to moisturize, soothe and restore the dry damaged skin, thus making it smooth and silky. Hemp oil takes excellent care of hair and lips.
  • Provides low amounts of saturated fats to the body.
    Oils those are rich in saturated fats result in the formation of cholesterol deposits, increased blood pressure, resulting in heart attacks and strokes. They also cause a few types of cancers in the body. Coconut oil is the most saturated choice. Hemp seed oil provides the lowest quantities of harmful saturated fats and is the healthiest of all eating oils.
  • Rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Polyunsaturated Fats are essential for the body and when taken with protein foods, these help to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure. They are thus helpful in preventing the body against heart problems like, attacks and strokes.
  • Helps in reducing body weight.
    Regular intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids helps to increase the rate of metabolic activity in the body. It is also helpful in burning excessive body fats and thus reduces excessive weight.
  • Helps to reduce inflammation.
    Hemp oil helps to reduce various kinds of inflammations in the body. Regular consumption of it is there useful in relieving inflammations caused by tuberculosis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases.
  • Hemp oil is an excellent fuel.
    The limited resources of fossil fuels and resulting pollution because of them created a need of an alternative source that can be used as a fuel. Biomass is one such alternative fuel source, which uses natural elements on the earth and converts them into energy that is required for various activities. Hempseed Oil has now become popular as a biomass source. It is not only efficient, but also cost effective and easy to grow.
  • Provides necessary amino acids to the body.
    There are many oils that supply amino acids to the body. These amino acids are building blocks of proteins and are essentially required by the body. Hemp seed provides all the essential amino acids that are required for protein synthesis and thus prevents the body from any protein deficiencies.
  • Helps to enhance the immunity of the body
    About fifty percent of hemp seed is made up of a globulin known as edistin. This contributes to the smooth functioning of all bodily functions and activities. The Globulin present in hemp seeds helps in enhancing the natural immunity of the body. The protein from globulin aids in the elimination of antigens or infecting agents from the body. These if remain in the body for long duration cause many kinds of infections and inflammations.
  • Detoxification of the body.
    Linoleic Acid and Alpha-Linolenic Acid present in hemp seed have a slight negative charge on them. They thus tend to form thin surface layers on various body parts. Due to this property they are able to carry harmful and toxic substances to, intestinal tract, lungs, kidneys and the surface of skin from where they can easily be eliminated.
  • Helps in the treatment of Lyme disease.
    Hemp seed and its oil support the treatment for Lyme disease. Bacteria that cause this disease usually hide in the liver and bile ducts. They have to be removed from there, if the disease has to be cured. Hemp seed enables the proper functioning of these supplements in treating this disease by removing disease causing bacteria.

Cannabinoids Antitumor Effects

All evidence to date on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids is based on laboratory studies. Mouse studies have shown that lung carcinoma, glioma (brain tumors), thyroid epithelioma, lymphoma, leukemia, and skin carcinoma are sensitive to cannabinoids. In vitro (tissue culture) studies have shown effectiveness against uterine, breast, and prostate carcinomas, as well as neurocarcinoma.

How do cannabinoids exert their effect?
The binding of cannabinoids to their receptors stimulates biochemical-signaling processes that result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The processes include increases apoptosis (programmed cell death), cell-cycle arrest (required for multiplication of cells), inhibition of angiogenesis (blood vessel growth within the tumors), and inhibition of metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).

Why should clinical trials be initiated with cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, and do not produce the generalized toxic effects of most conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Limited studies have shown that cannabinoid treatment does not result in marked alteration of a wide array of physiological, neurological,neurological, and blood tests.

The major limiting factor in cannabinoid use is their psychoactive effects. Researchers are synthesizing new cannabinoids that could circumvent this problem. Cannabinoids that bind to CB2 or other receptors have already been developed. Clinical trials are taking place in other countries on the use of cannabidiol, since this cannabinoid is less psychoactive. Another possibility would be the development of cannabinoids that do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and thus operate only in the peripheral tissues. Finally, the effectiveness of endocannabinoids could be prolonged if inhibitors of its breakdown could be developed.

In 2009: Researchers in Spain have published results in this week’s British Journal of Cancer showing that certain cannabinoids – molecules so-called because they were originally found in cannabis – could hold promise for treating prostate cancer.

So does this mean that smoking cannabis could treat the disease?
Certainly not. In this paper the researchers were using purified man-made cannabinoids. And they were investigating how to harness the cancer-fighting powers of these chemicals without the mind-bending ones.

Cannabinoids and Cancer

Certain cannabinoids, such as THC, the main active ingredient in cannabis, have well-documented mind-altering properties. But other cannabinoids have been known for some years to have biological effects elsewhere in the body. Of most interest to cancer researchers is the evidence showing that they can slow the growth and spread of cancer cells, or even kill them.

For example, Cancer Research UK is funding the work of Professor Chris Paraskeva in Bristol, who is investigating the anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids, as part of his research into the prevention and treatment of bowel cancer.

It needs to be stressed that these studies have all been done with purified cannabinoid chemicals – not cannabis itself, which contains cannabinoids along with a cocktail of other chemicals. There is no reliable evidence to suggest that smoking cannabis can treat cancer.

How do they work?
Cannabinoids affect cells’ behaviour by sticking to receptor molecules on their surface, and triggering a cascade of events within them. There are two main types of cannabinoid receptor, known as CB1 and CB2, although researchers think there may be others out there.

CB1 is mainly found on nerve cells in the brain – so its likely to be the important one when it comes to the mind-altering effects of cannabis. CB2 is mainly found elsewhere in the body, and is the prime suspect for controlling the other effects of cannabinoids on the body.

In nerve cells, cannabinoids sticking to CB1 receptors can lead to changes in the signalling pathways (causing the mind-altering and pain-relieving effects of cannabis). We also now know that cannabinoids can trigger other events within the cell, including halting growth or even kick-starting cell death.

In their recent paper, Professor Ines Diaz-Laviada and her team at the University of Alcala in Madrid studied the effects of two cannabinoids – the catchily named Methanandamide (MET) and JWH-015. These are synthetic chemicals that don’t occur naturally in cannabis, although they are similar to compounds found in the plant.

The researchers tested the chemicals on different human prostate cancer cell lines grown in the lab, and found that they could slow down their growth and trigger cell death. An interesting finding, but which of the two cannabinoid receptors is at work?

By using drugs that block either one receptor or the other, or a genetic technique called RNA interference to ‘knock out’ CB1 or CB2 in turn, the scientists found that the anti-cancer effects of MET and JWH-015 were brought about by CB2.

This is an important finding, because it tells us that it should be possible to develop drugs that target CB2, which will have an anti-cancer effect, but which – crucially – won’t have the mind-altering effects of many cannabinoids.

As a last step, the researchers tested the effects of JWH-015 on mice that had been transplanted with human prostate cancer cells. The chemical helped to slow the growth of tumours, compared with a saltwater control. And blocking the CB2 receptors with a highly-specific drug called SR2 wiped out the effect of JWH-015, proving that it works through the CB2 pathway.

What does it mean for cancer treatment?
Although this work is still at an early stage, it provides a tantalising suggestion that drugs that activate the CB2 receptor could be useful for treating prostate cancer. There’s still more research to be done before we know if MET or JWH-015 are suitable for testing in clinical trials involving patients – and no guarantee that these trials would be successful.

As part of this research, the scientists also investigated the cellular pathways that cannabinoids activate (or block) when they bind to CB2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. By understanding these cellular responses in greater detail, we might discover new targets for cancer treatment.

So can smoking cannabis treat cancer?
No. This is a classic fallacy – assuming that because cannabinoids can kill cancer cells in the lab, then cannabis (containing cannabinoids) must be able to treat cancer. Ed has previously written extensively about this, with regard to red wine and cancer.

This research has been done using man-made chemicals that mimic the compounds found in cannabis, rather than unpurified marijuana. Smoking cannabis, particularly when mixed with tobacco, is likely to increase rather that decrease cancer risk, although the evidence for this is mixed. And, of course, cannabis is classified as an illegal drug in the UK.

On the other hand, Hemp is used for a wide variety of purposes, including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength, clothing, and nutritional products. The bast fibres can be used in 100% hemp products, but are commonly blended with other organic fibres such as flax, cotton or silk, for apparel and furnishings, most commonly at a 55%/45% hemp/cotton blend. The inner two fibres of hemp are more woody, and are more often used in non-woven items and other industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. The oil from the fruits (“seeds”) oxidizes (commonly, though inaccurately, called “drying”) to become solid on exposure to air, similar to linseed oil, and is sometimes used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird seed mix as well. Hempseed is also widely used as a fishing bait.

Hemp seed oil is considered to be the best nutritional oil for health because its essential fatty acid (EFA) profile is closest to that required by the human body. Essential fatty acids are termed as such because the body cannot manufacture them. Therefore, they must continually be replenished in the diet. EFAs are not stored or used for energy as are other fats. Instead, they are used as raw materials for cell structure and as precursors for the synthesis of many of the body’s vital biochemicals, including hormones and prostaglandins.

Because our brains are made of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, many assume that the only way you should obtain these is by eating such things as fish, which have the long-chain fats. Such plant sources as hemp seed oil, coconut oil, and flax seed oil are made up mainly of medium-chain fats, which non-vegetarians quickly point out. However, when long-chain fatty acids are eaten, they must be emulsified by bile salts in the small intestine before they can be absorbed into the body. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly through the portal vein to the liver, where they are immediately available to the body.

Hemp seeds are the only natural source to boast of having the ideal ratio of EFAs required by the human body, which is roughly 3:1 of omega-6 to omega-3, the two most important EFAs. Flax oil ranks second as a valuable EFA source, but flax seed is not in the optimal proportion. Rather, it has the opposite ratio – 1:3. After about two years of regular use, flax seed can evenually cause omega-6 deficiency symptoms.

By weight, hemp seed is 30-35% oil, of which 80% consists of polyunsaturated EFAs, specifically the two most important ones – linoleic acid (LA – omega-6 at 60%) and linolenic acid (LNA or ALA – omega-3 at 20%). These are the parent compounds which build longer-chain fatty acids. LNA then converts to DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) – two of the most critically needed forms of EFA and LA converts to AA (arachidonic acid), which has opposite effects of those from DHA.

An excess of AA – the result of too much omega-6 – ultimately leads to such health problems as inflammation and, more importantly, increases blood clotting, which can cause heart attack, stroke, or embolism. In the last 40 years, the American diet has become loaded with excess omega-6 from corn and soybean oil, margarine, and similar processed fats. At the same time, Americans eat 500 mg of omega-3 per day, much less than they need. Consequently, instead of the 3:1 ratio they should be getting, most people consuming the western-type diet, end up with a ratio of 50:1.

Other fatty acids in hemp seed oil include: Palmitoleic acid, Heptadecanoic acid, Arachiditic acid, Eicosenoic acid, Behenic acid, Erucic acid, Lignoceric acid, and Nervonic acid; but it also contains several higher fatty acids. It is one of the only food oils to contain the direct metabolites of LA and LNA. Most notable are GLA (gamma linolenic acid from LA) and SDA (stearidonic acid from LNA), which serve as intermediaries in the formation of longer-chain fatty acids and vital hormone-like prostaglandins in the body. Because of this, hemp seed oil is able to circumvent the impaired EFA metabolism and physical compromise that can result from genetic factors, intake of other fats, aging, and lifestyle patterns.

Hemp Stem Showing Fibres

The fibre is one of the most valuable parts of the hemp plant. It is commonly called bast, which refers to the fibres that grow on the outside of the woody interior of the plant’s stalk, and under the outer most part (the bark). Bast fibres give the plants strength. Hemp fibres can be between approximately 0.91 m (3 ft) and 4.6 m (15 ft) long, running the length of the plant. Depending on the processing used to remove the fibre from the stem, the hemp may naturally be creamy white, brown, gray, black or green.

The use of hemp for fibre production has declined sharply over the last two centuries, but before the industrial revolution, hemp was a popular fibre because it is strong and grows quickly; it produces 10% more fibre than cotton and 10% more fibre than flax when grown on the same land. Hemp has been used to make paper. It was often used to make sail canvas, and the word canvas derives from cannabis. Abaca, or “Manila hemp”, a relative of the banana plant, replaced its use for rope. Burlap, made from jute, took over the sacking market. The paper industry began using wood pulp. The carpet industry switched over to wool, sisal, and jute, then nylon. Netting and webbing applications were taken over by cotton and synthetics.

Benefits Of Hemp

The scientific name of hemp is “cannabis sativa.” And it is commonly also known as Marijuana. Since the past thousands years hemp was being used for the commercial production of things like paper, canvas, rope, and textiles. Many years ago marijuana or hemp was banned without taking care of the numerous benefits it offers. However, the recent past, shows the rediscovery of hemp as a plant with numerous commercial, environmental, and economic, benefits which include:

With so many benefits to health, hemp should be made a part of our diet. Plantation of hemp should be increased as it is useful for maintaining quality of environment as a whole.

Hemp Oil

Hemp seed oil is pressed from the seed of the hemp (cannabis) plant irrespective of the strain of cannabis. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a pleasant nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavour.

Refined hempseed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavour and lacks natural vitamins and antioxidants. Refined hemp seed oil is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hemp seed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hemp seed oil has found some limited use in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil is of high nutritional value because its 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids, which matches the balance required by the human body. It has also received attention in recent years as a possible feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel. There are a number of organisations that promote the production and use of hemp seed oil.

Hash oil is made from the bud and leaves of the cannabis plant. Hash oil, not to be confused with hempseed oil, contains a much higher THC content and is known to have greater medicinal properties than that of hemp seed. Hash oil is made by extracting the THC from the cannabis plant, and producing an oil so that the THC can be taken orally, used topically, or vaporized instead of smoked to produce psychoactive effects. The medicinal benefit of the oil is currently under study but it has shown great results related to the treatment of cancers and diseases. Hash oil is considered a Schedule I drug in the United States as a result of the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. Hash oil containing psychoactive cannabinoids should never be referred to as ‘hemp oil’, as the modern usage of the word ‘hemp’ is reserved for plants that meet the legal requirement of containing 0.3% THC or less.

Hemp seed oil has a relatively low smoke point and is not suitable for frying. Hempseed oil is primarily used as a food oil and dietary supplement, and has been shown to relieve the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis).

Hemp Oil Preparation

As with all essential fatty acids, hemp oil must not be heated or fried and it is very susceptible to heat and light. The oil is extracted from the seed by a slowly rotating press. The pressure from this press squeezes the oil from the seed and leaves only the remaining ‘seed-cake’. This is always done in an oxygen-free environment, as exposure to oxygen can rapidly depreciate the quality of the oil.

Always ensure that your oils are prepared in such a way (i.e. without excessive heat, light and oxygen) and always store hemp oil in the refrigerator, use quickly, and never heat.

Benefits Of Hemp Oil

The Hemp plant produces seeds that contain rich quantities of pure oil. The oil present in hemp seeds contains approximately 75 to 80% the good fat i.e. the polyunsaturated fatty acid. Only 9 to 11% of less preferred saturated fatty acids are present in hemp oil. Hemp seeds enclose approximately 40% oil, which combines the benefits of both marine fish oils and edible vegetable oils. Hemp seed oil contains rich quantities of Omega 3 and Omega 6 essential fatty acids. Along with this, good amounts of Vitamin E make the hemp oil healthier.

Hemp oil has so many benefits to human health that is should be the first choice when buying oil for cooking purposes. By growing hemp on the land, that is lying waste we can produce a crop that can be used an alternative source for producing energy.

Hemp Oil Storage

Hemp oil is a highly unsaturated oil. As such, it has a relatively low smoke point and is not suitable for frying. It is primarily used as a food oil and dietary supplement, and has been shown to relieve the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis). Hemp oil can spontaneously oxidize and turn rancid within a short period of time if not stored properly; it is best stored in a dark glass bottle, in a refrigerator or freezer (its freezing point is -20°C). Preservatives (antioxidants) are not necessary for high quality oils that are stored properly.

Dietary supplement

Hemp oil has been shown to relieve the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis).

Hemp Seed contains a large dietary supplement of omega-3, higher even than walnuts which contain 6.3% of n-3.

Hemp Seeds

Hemp seeds contain all the essential amino acids and essential fatty acids necessary to maintain healthy human life. The seeds can be eaten raw, ground into a meal, sprouted, made into hemp milk (akin to soy milk), prepared as tea, and used in baking. The fresh leaves can also be eaten in salads. Products range from cereals to frozen waffles, hemp tofu to nut butters.

A few companies produce value added hemp seed items that include the seed oils, whole hemp grain (which is sterilized by law), dehulled hemp seed (the whole seed without the mineral rich outer shell), hemp flour, hemp cake (a by-product of pressing the seed for oil) and hemp protein powder. Hemp is also used in some organic cereals, for non-dairy milk somewhat similar to soy and nut milks, and for non-dairy hemp “ice cream.”

Within the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has treated hemp as purely a non-food crop. Seed appears on the UK market as a legal food product, and cultivation licences are available for this purpose. In North America, hemp seed food products are sold, typically in health food stores or through mail order. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that “the market potential for hemp seed as a food ingredient is unknown. However, it probably will remain a small market, like those for sesame and poppy seeds.”

Benefits Of Hemp Seed

Industrial hemp produces another useful product for use by human population. This very beneficial product from the hemp plant is the hemp seed. Hemp seed and the oil extracted from is considered to be the most perfect and balanced combination of the Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) found in nature.

The seed contains a perfect ratio of Omega-3 fatty acids. The nutritional requirement of Omega-3 or linoleic acid and Omega-6 or Alpha-linolenic acid is in the ratio 1:3. The same ratio is found in hemp seed and oil extracted from it, so long term intake of this seed helps to cure many diseases and deficiencies. Other products containing EFA contain different ratios which may cause deficiencies and the related diseases. Hemp seed is also rich in Omega-9 fatty acids and provides numerous benefits to the body which include:

  • Helps to cure Autism.
    The Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids present in hemp seed help to cure and relieve symptoms of patients suffering from Autism.
  • Hemp is a plant that can grows well without the use of pesticides or fertilizers. This makes the plant safe for consumption and should be included in your diet. Long term use of hemp seed will help you to stay fit and healthy.

    Hemp Seed Protein

    Proteins serve such functions as acting as enzymes, antibodies, and the structural components of tissues, hormones, and blood protein. The main function of dietary protein is to supply the building blocks called amino acids so that they can be used to reconstruct other proteins needed for the growth and maintenance of body tissue.

    Proteins are often classified as structural (fibrous) or biologically active (globular). Structural proteins include collagen, keratin, and fibrinogen, which are the main constitutents of bones, skin, hair, ligaments, feathers, and hooves! Biologically active proteins are mainly globulins and include such things as hormones, hemoglobin, antibodies (immunoglobulins), and enzymes. Although the body can make globular proteins out of any protein that enters the body, it is much more efficient for the body to make globulins out of globular starting material.

    What makes globular proteins so special is that they are precursors to some of the most vital chemicals in the body:

    • hormones (which regulate all the body processes);
    • hemoglobin (which transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide);
    • enzymes (which catalyze and control biochemical reactions);
    • antibodies (immunoglobulins which fend off invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body).

    The total protein content of hemp seed is about 65% of the globular protein edestin, which closely resembles the globulin found in human blood plasma. It is easily digested, absorbed, and utilized by humans and vital to maintaining a healthy immune system. Edestin has the unique ability to stimulate the manufacture of antibodies against invasive agents and is nearly phosphorus-free, which is important for kidney ailments. The other important protein in hemp seed is albumin, which is also a highly digestible protein because of its globular shape. Albumin is a major free radical scavenger and is the industry standard for protein quality evaluation.

    Hemp protein contains all 21 known amino acids, including the 9 essential ones adult bodies cannot produce. Proteins are considered complete when they contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities and ratios to meet the body’s needs. The following are the 21 most common amino acids, with 8 essential ones in bold:

    • alanine
    • arginine
    • aspargine
    • aspartic acid
    • cysteine
    • glutamic acid
    • glutamine
    • glycine
    • histidine
    • isoleucine
    • leucine
    • lysine
    • methionine
    • phenylalanine
    • proline
    • serine
    • taurine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • tyrosine
    • valine
    • taurine (considered essential for premature babies)
    • histidine (considered essential for children, but not for adults)

    Proteins are potential allergens, which also include soy, dairy, or peanut proteins. However, no hemp seed allergies have ever been reported. Several oilseeds also contain anti-nutritional factors; for example, the trypsin inhibitors in soybeans; but none of these factors are known to occur in hemp seeds. Hemp seeds also contain fewer oligosaccharides, present in peas and beans and which cause intestinal gas.

    A significant number of people are becoming allergic to soy products, possibly because most are from genetically engineered crops or grown with the use of chemicals. On the other hand, because hemp seed does not require chemicals or genetic alteration, it rarely, if ever, causes sensitivity.

    Hemp seed protein can supply any diet with a vegetarian source of essential fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, fibre, chlorophyll, and a complete, balanced gluten-free source of the essential amino acids.

    History reveals the importance of hemp seed protein.

    • In 1881, a German scientist discovered that hemp seed contained edestin, its main protein.
    • In the early 20th century, edestin was one of the most studied proteins in both science and industry.
    • In 1909, the nature of enzymes became known when a British scientist discovered the protein enzyme protease in hempseed. He called it vegetable trypsin. Today, enzymes are indispensible to the food ingredient industry and are used to make many foods.
    • In 1915, the Journal of Biological Chemistry discussed edestin at length, presenting ideas that would later form the basis for protein complementarity and combining, a popular concept among vegetarians. A later issue published a vegetable protein study. In it, edestin was considered suitable as a sole protein source for animals: “Protein feeding in the future will be based rather on the amino acid makeup than on the results of past feeding experiments.” The study also stated that “the relatively large amounts of lysine present in the…hempseed…is especially noteworthy.”
    • In 1932, a patent was issued for a gluing process using hempseed protein. Today, milk protein is used in adhesives.
    • In 1937, the same scientists who first spun vegetable protein for food issued a patent using hemp seed protein to make spun filaments, films, and threads that are similar to silk and wool.

    Protein Content Compared

    • Soybeans 35.0%
    • Hemp seed shelled 31.0%
    • Hamburger beef 27.1%
    • Blue fish 26.0%
    • Cheddar cheese 23.5%
    • Chicken 23.5%
    • Hempseed — whole 23.0%
    • Almonds 18.3%
    • Wheat flour 13.3%
    • Egg 12.0%
    • Tofu 08.0%
    • Rice 07.5%
    • Skimmed milk 03.7%

    Essential Amino Acids Compared (Units are in Grams)

    Essential Amino Acid Hemp Seed Egg Whites Tofu Human  Milk Cow’s Milk
    Leucine 18.80 9.50 5.9 2.78 3.44
    Lysine 9.10 6.48 5.7 3.12 2.72
    Threonine 10.30 4.77 3.7 0.62 1.61
    Phen + Tyro 21.90 6.89 4.8 1.21 1.70
    Valine 14.20 8.42 4.3 1.39 2.40
    Meth + Cyst 9.60 4.20 1.0 0.65 0.86
    Isoleucine 11.40 6.98 4.1 0.75 2.23
    Tryptophan 3.90 1.64 1.2 0.23 0.49

    Hemp Protein Powders

    When purchasing a hemp protein powder, look for a brand that supplies at least 50% protein by weight and supplying 15 grams of protein per 30 gram serving. While hemp protein may contain more total fat than many other protein powders, it should be stressed that almost all of this fat comes from the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-6 and Omega-3. Hemp is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as having what is considered to be an optimal 3:1 balance of omega 6 to omega 3 essential fatty acids.

    Unlike hemp protein powder, many soy isolate powders that are not labeled organic are often processed with hexane, a petroleum solvent that has adverse impacts on the environment as well as on human health. The resulting hexane-processed soy is utilized in many soy protein powders, cereals, and bars. Hemp protein powder is produced using only cold-pressed techniques and does not involve the use of hexane in the production process. It is the same technique that ensures valuable vitamins and minerals are not destroyed during processing.

    Perhaps the most important difference between soy and hemp seed protein powders is that the non-organic soybeans used in many soy products are often derived from genetically modified soybeans. Hemp is never genetically modified. Hemp foods also have low environmental impacts because growing hemp seeds does not require the addition of herbicides or pesticides.

    A pound of hemp seed would provide all the protein, essential fatty acids, and dietary fiber necessary for human survival for two weeks. For this reason it is used in many parts of the world for treating malnourishment.

    Here’s an article entitled: Marijuana Protects your Brain by Dana Larsen – Friday, January 1 1999 said that studies reveal that marijuana protects against brain damage from stroke, heart attacks, and nerve gas.

    The US National Institute of Health has found that chemicals in cannabis can reduce the extent of damage during a stroke, at least in rats. Experiments with rat nerve cells, and then with actual rats, suggest that THC and cannabidiol, both compounds found in marijuana, can protect cells by acting as antioxidants, and could be useful in the treatment and prevention of stroke, heart attacks, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Researchers are investigating how cannabidiol and other antioxidants can reduce the severity of damage from “ischaemic strokes”, in which blood vessels in the brain become blocked.

    During ischaemic strokes, which make up 80% of all strokes, free radicals are released into the bloodstream. These harmful molecules are believed to cause stroke damage, such as paralysis and loss of speech and vision. Cannabidiol has potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, so it can neutralize free radicals and limit their damage.

    Meanwhile, an Israeli pharmaceutical company called Pharmos is conducting human clinical trials using a synthetic, injectable version of cannabidiol, which they have dubbed Dexanabinol.

    Dexanabinol’s creator is Professor Raphael Mechoulam of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, who discovered THC in 1964, and has been studying cannabis for over thirty years.

    Dr William Beaver, who chaired a panel assembled last year by the US National Institute of Health to review the medical uses of marijuana, called Dexanabinol “the most medically significant use ever made of marijuana.”

    The human clinical tests began in 1996 with 67 patients in Israel’s neurotrauma centres. About 1000 patients will be involved in the next phase, at a cost of $15 million over two years. According to US medical investment analysts, Dexanabinol showed no serious side effects when administered to healthy volunteers.

    Aside from the five million people worldwide who suffer a stroke or head trauma each year, there’s another huge market for Dexanabinol, the US Army. US military tests on rats have shown that those exposed to Dexanabinol were 70% less likely to suffer epileptic seizures or brain damage after being exposed to sarin and other nerve gases. Dexanabinol is effective as both a preventative measure and as an antidote.

    The military’s greatest concern seems to be whether Dexanabinol possesses the same psychoactive and enlightening properties as THC and some other cannabinoids. Although THC and cannabidiol both provided equal defense against cell damage, cannabidiol doesn’t have significant psychoactive effects.

    Of course, the obvious corollary to this is that if synthetic Dexanabinol can prevent brain damage, then organic marijuana does so as well. So the next time grandpa has a stroke, try and get him to take a few bong-hits before the ambulance arrives. Better yet, give him a hash brownie each evening before he has that stroke. You might just save his life.

    Rick Simpson Cancer Cure Story

    After a serious head injury in 1997, Rick Simpson sought relief from his medical condition through the use of medicinal hemp oil. When Rick discovered that the hemp oil (with its high concentration of T.H.C.) cured cancers and other illnesses, he tried to share it with as many people as he could free of charge, curing and controlling literally hundreds of people’s illnesses… but when the story went public, the long arm of the law snatched the cannabis plants.

    Anecdotal Evidence

    Rick Simpson Full Version Story

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 1 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 2 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 3 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 4 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 5 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 6 of 7)

    RUN FROM THE CURE – The Rick Simpson Story (Part 7 of 7)

    Cancer Cure – Cannabis & Cannabinoids,by Robert Melamede,PhD

    Buy Hemp Oil Products Online

    • In North America: Hemp Oil Canada and Nutiva
    • In Europe: Finola: (Finola hemp seed foods are also sold in North America through Hemp Oil Canada.)

    Search for Hemp Oil.

    Cannabinoids Research Links

    There have been several studies which have been published which focus on the medical value of smoked marijuana and cancer therapy. These include:

    Cannabinoids may therefore offer a therapeutic option in the treatment of highly invasive cancers.
    Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of
    Matrix Metalloproteinases-1

    “Our findings point to the potential application of cannabinoid receptor type 2 ligands as anti-tumour agents in prostate cancer.”

    Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-Methanandamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2

    Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Di Marzo’s group found that cannabinoids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, and Guzman’s group found that cannabinoids inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cell.

    The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2

    The nonpsychoactive CBD was able to produce a significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting a possible application of CBD as an antineoplastic agent.
    Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines

    Cannabinoid Receptor as a Novel Target for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    The present laboratory and clinical findings provide a novel pharmacological target for cannabinoid-based therapies.
    Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas

    Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro

    Cannabinoid action: direct inhibition of vascular endothelial cell migration and survival, and suppression of proangiogenic factor and MMP expression in the tumors.
    Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids1

    Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors
    functional in the induction of apoptosis of skin tumor cells and the regression of skin carcinomas.

    Anti-tumoral Action of Cannabinoids

    Tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells

    We investigated four cannabinoids for antineoplastic activity against three animal tumor models in vivo and for cytotoxic or cystostatic activity in two tumor cell lines and bone marrow cells in vitro.
    Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids

    Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.
    Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells.

    Cannabinoids in treatment of side effects from cancer chemotherapy.

    Cannabinoids: Cancer Survivors Network

    Cannabinoids inhibit “tumor growth and migration, angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels to cancerous tumors), [and] metastasis (the transfer of malignant cells from one site to another),” authors concluded.
    Cannabinoids Fight Cancer


    King’s College Review of Nutritional Attributes of Cold Pressed Hemp Seed Oil

    Seeds of the plant cannabis sativa, hemp seed, contain all the essential amino acids and essential fatty acids necessary to maintain healthy human life. No other single plant source has the essential amino acids in such an easily digestible form, nor has the essential fatty acids in as perfect a ratio to meet human nutritional needs.

    Hemp seed oil comprises 35% of the total seed weight. This oil has the lowest amount of saturated fatty acids at 8%, and the highest amount of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids at 80%, total oil volume. Flax seed oil comes in second at 72% combined total essential fatty acids.

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